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Pompejus瞭望塔/RO&AD Architecten
2018-04-11
荷兰


感谢来自RO&AD Architecten的分享

主题:Pompejus情况说明

建筑师:RO&AD Architects,Bergen op Zoom

设计团队:Ad Kil,Ro Koster和Martin van Overveld

专员:Bergen op Zoom / Municipality Bergen op Zoom

建筑师:Adviesbureau Luning,Velp

承包商:Berghbouw,De Kok Bouwgroep,Nijs Soffers,VKP

摄影师:Katja Effting

地点:Halsteren,荷兰

开始 - 结束建设:02-2017,12-2017

功能:瞭望塔,露天剧场,信息中心/钟楼,露天剧场,信息中心

高度:26米


Onderwerp: Fact Sheet Pompejus

Architect: RO&AD Architecten, Bergen op Zoom

Design team: Ad Kil, Ro Koster, Martin van Overveld

Commissioner: Gemeente Bergen op Zoom / Municipality Bergen op Zoom

structural enginee: Adviesbureau Luning, Velp

Contractors: Berghbouw, De Kok Bouwgroep, Nijs Soffers, VKP

Photographer: Katja Effting

Location: Halsteren, Nederland

Start-End construction: 02-2017, 12-2017

Function: Uitkijktoren, openluchttheater, info-centrum / Watch tower, open air theatre, info centre

Height: 26 meter



Pompejus是一座位于哈尔斯特伦卢佛瑞堡的瞭望塔,其特殊的位置使来访者可以俯瞰西布拉班特的水上防御大坝。非同以往,该瞭望塔既问讯处,也是开放的游客活动空间。该瞭望塔以该处堡垒的第一任指挥官Pompejus de Roovere的名字命名。


Pompejus is a watchtower on Fort de Roovere in Halsteren, West Brabant. The tower looks out over the West Brabant Water Defence Line, the oldest part of the Zuiderwaterlinie running from Bergen op Zoom to Grave. Pompejus is a watchtower, an open-air theatre and an information point for tourists. Pompejus is named after the first commander of the fortress, Pompejus de Roovere



历史   History

为防抵御法国人和西班牙人的入侵,保障从米德尔堡到多德雷赫特船运路线的安全,泽兰省和南荷兰政府于1627年建造了这座西布拉班特水上防御大坝。该大坝连接贝亨奥普佐姆和史丁柏根,并沿途设立多个防御堡垒。这其中最主要的堡垒卢佛瑞堡,是第一个将景观、边防和防洪体系结合在一起的防御工程。


The West Brabantse Water Defence Line was built in 1627 by the States of Zeeland, and Zuid-Holland to protect the important shipping route from Middelburg to Dordrecht against attacks by the Spaniards and the French. The line included the cities of Bergen on Zoom and Steenbergen and a number of forts, including the main fort, Fort de Roovere and was the first landscape defensive work in which inundation was deployed as a defence strategy. 



当洪水没过大坝蔓延到景观场地中,入侵者将寸步难行。在防御大坝悠长的历史上,它曾帮助荷兰人抵御来自法国,西班牙和奥地利人的威胁,也历经几次火灾。进入十八世纪,该大坝已经成为当地最重要的防线,这期间,著名设计师Menno van Coehoorn对它进行了彻底的加固。


Inundation is the submersion of the landscape so that armies can no longer pull through the landscape with their equipment. In the course of the centuries the Linie has been under fire several times, among other things against the Austrians, French and Spanish. In the beginning of the 18th century the water line became more and more important and was thoroughly strengthened by the famous fortress builder Menno van Coehoorn. 



Roovere堡垒和一系列防御工程也获得了再次整修。西布拉班特大坝是荷兰历史上唯一一条水上防御大坝,它几经迎战,经历过成功和失败。1747年,大坝和当地城市在法国人的围攻下彻底沦陷 。到了19世纪,该大坝已不再作为军事要塞使用。部分堤坝被移除,遗下的一些军事堡垒也被拆毁。从2010年起,开发商开始陆续进驻大坝周边,运河景观逐渐得到恢复,众多娱乐活动也在其四周兴起。


Fortress the Roovere was reinforced and increased and several preliminary works were carried out. The West Brabantse Waterlinie is the only waterline in the Netherlands where ever has been battled, usually successful, sometimes not. In 1747 the line and the City fell under the siege of the French. In the 19th century the line was strategically depreciated. It disappeared in some places, in others the forts were excavated. From 2010 onwards, one has started restoring the line. Forests have been taken from the forts, canals are restored. From that time on, the line is also developed for recreation.



景观   Landscape

由于位于布拉班特边线地区,景观轴线迎合了场地环境中极其微妙的高差变化。位于地势低处的村庄部分经常遭受洪涝灾害,因而位于地势高处的村庄则修建了众多防御堡垒,且这些沙堡彼此相连。


The line uses very subtle altitude differences in the landscape. This is possible because it is located on the edge of the Brabantse Wal, the edge of the deck sand in Brabant. The low parts can be inundated, on the high parts and therefore defensive weak parts fortified towns and forts were built. These fortresses are sand forts and were connected to each other with ‘Linie dikes’. But also visually the forts were connected, you could look from one fortress to another. 



因此,在堡垒之间建造丛林似乎是不可能实现的。Roovere堡垒曾是这其中处于最中心地位的一座。咸水与淡水在此处交融,视线从Bergen op Zoom堡垒到Steenbergen的方向里畅通无阻。因此,在原厂地处修建一座瞭望塔是景观规划中最重要也是最实际的决定。


By afforestation this is no longer possible. Fort the Roovere was a central point in the landscape. The separation of fresh water and salt water inundation was here. It was the middle of the defence line, so from the fortress towards Bergen op Zoom and in the direction of Steenbergen could be looked at. This is no longer possible in the current landscape, which is why the plan came up of creating a watchtower here to make that possible again.



设计   Design

Pompejus所在的场地正是位于场地一角,面朝着敌人的方向。锋利的塔楼形状朝海岸倾斜,映射了原堡垒的防御功能。塔楼朝外的一侧性对封闭,而朝内的一侧则被完全打开。如此,塔楼便形成了一个开放的问讯处和可容纳225人的露天表演场地。


The edge of the fortress on which Pompejus stands is directed at the enemy. The tower is positioned exactly on that corner. By mirroring up the sides of the fort, a sharp shape is created which leans forward over the moat. As a result, it is closed on the outside, and open at the fort side. This creates space on the inside for an information centre and an open-air theatre for 225 people. 



瞭望塔较原堡垒高25米,并以较周围树丛高34米的高度,拥有享受周边美景的绝对优势。步入顶端,来访者便可以轻松一览方园20公里的美丽景致,将整条西布拉班特海上大坝收入眼底。


To see the surrounding area over the trees, the tower must be 25 meters high above the fortress. Because the fortress itself rises 9 metres above the landscape, Pompejus literally towers 34 metres above his surroundings. From the top you can look 20 kilometres far in all directions and you can see the entire West Brabant Water Defence Line.



瞭望塔立面设计遵循泰森多边形法,将钢结构三角以数学方式排列,并创造一系列立面窗户和开口。除此之外,由一系列预制构件搭建的塔楼立面具备灵活性,方便建造过程中的运输,及建造后期的调整和改变。


The facade is designed according to the principle of the Voronoi diagram, a mathematical design principle in which we used the triangles of the steel construction in order to make it possible to have windows and openings in the façade. Secondly the facade can be divided into elements to be prefabricated and transported, and add an additional layer to the facade to break the dominance of the triangular steel structure.



科技与材料   Technology and material

为了使Pompejus塔楼便于实施搭建,设计师未绘制详细图纸,而是绘制了一幅3D模型,并进一步将3D模型直接导入钢铁制造商的CNC切割车床中,转变为机器语言并最终量产出建造部件。


In order to make the building of Pompejus manageable for everyone, we have used the File-to-Factory principle. No drawings have been made for the construction, only a 3D model is used. This model has been directly converted into 'scripts' for a Tekla model for the steel manufacturer and in machine language for CNC milling machines of the carpentry factory. 



这种材料装配方式如宜家的家具装配如出一辙。设计师对每一块材料进行标记和编号,简化了整个拆装过程。除此之外,这些结构部件的外包装也采取这种方式,并在包装内部提供完整的3D组装图纸。塔楼采用钢、木混合结构搭建。其中主体结构采用镀锌钢,其他结构、立面装配、楼梯和踏步则使用固雅木。问讯处由木结构框架搭建,并与其他功能空间相隔。


This resulted in kind of Ikea-Billy cabinet packs in which all of the produced elements were encoded and could be assembled relatively easily. These packages were also scripted in such a way that from the 3D model also automatically the assembly drawings were provided. The construction consists of a hybrid steel-wood construction, in which the main structure consists of galvanized steel, and the sub-structure, façade elements, stairways and stairs are made of timber. The wood used is Accoya. The information space is thermally isolated and consists of timber frame construction.



社会性   Social system

为了使该项目更具可行性,贝亨奥普佐姆组建了全新了公共社区,并全程参与了瞭望塔的建造。他们发起了一系列众筹活动来帮助塔楼的运营,并邀请赞助商为塔楼提供必要的材料和运输费用,组织学校学生及社会人士、公益组织等参与志愿者活动。


In order to make this project possible, a community has grown in Bergen op Zoom who participated in the creation of Pompejus. For example, crowdfunding has been used to let people sponsor Pompejus, companies have sponsored parts of construction such as transport or wood, schools have provided interns, but also organizations have provided interns and volunteers.



那些愿意将Pompejus和Roovere堡垒作为未来生活一部分的市民们,都积极参与了塔楼的建造。该项目旨在将瞭望塔回归居民生活。该项目的成就不仅是塔楼的建立,还有围绕塔楼兴起的一系列社区及社交活动。优秀的建筑和良好的活动组织,让该地的生活焕然一新。


People who want to use the Pompejus and fort the Roovere in the future have been active to help the development. The aim was to make Pompejus 'our tower' and to connect with the residents of the surrounding area. This has been successful not only becausethe tower has been built, but above all because there is already an entire organisation to program the fort with events and it will be properly programmed and managed in the coming years.




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